The first microscope designed in 1590 by Zacharias Jansen (1580-1632) magnified only 10 times, and the image was dark and indistinct. The first successes in the microscopic observations are the merit of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). Using self-made lenses, in 1677 he built a microscope magnifying up to 270 times. Development of the microscope was connected with the improvement of image resolution and increasing of magnifying range, which was made possible thanks to a new glass melting technology, new materials and to applying multiple lenses systems. In 1931 the first device in which the light was replaced by electron beam – the electron microscope – was constructed. Nowadays, both optical and electron microscopes are used in laboratories.
* simple microscopes, Magnifying glass: magnifications 400 x; resolutions 200 mikrometers
* compound optical microscopes: magnifications 3 500 x; resolutoions 200 nanometers
* electron microscopes: magnifications 10 000 000 x; resolutions 0,05 nanometers