Instruments from university laboratories of the 20th century

temporary exhibition open from 13th September 2012 until 26 November 2012

balances
microscopes

Electrical equipment



Although "electrifying of the bodies" was observed in ancient times, modern science of the electricity developed in the eighteenth century. Construction of instruments to produce an electric charge called the electrostatic machines was launched, observations the electric charge were performed, scientists attempted to quantitatively measure for the observed electrical phenomena by constructing the first electroscopes. Instruments for electrical measurements such as galvanometers, ammeters, ohmmeters et al. known to us today were constructed in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the following laws of physics describing electrical phenomena was already known: Coulomb's law (1785), Amper's law (1820), Ohm's law (1826), Gauss law (1835), Kirchohoff's law (1845), Maxwell's law (1864). Design of meters and their, their shapes changed in the twentieth century - from the instruments bound in wood at the beginning of the century to "black boxes" typical for 1960's


electrodinamic machine

Model of the electric generator

Poland, 1930th
Educational dynamo model. Demonstrates a phenomenon in which mechanical energy coming from the disk rotation is converted into electricity. Developed in 1831 by the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday.
Given by the Promary School in Nowy Sącz.
electrometer

Electrometer

E. Leybold Nachfolger, Koln, 1915
Precision instrument for the measurement of low voltage electrical equipment. The instrument works on the principle of electrostatic weight, which weights balances the attraction between the covers of a cylindrical capacitor charged. Electrometer type developed in 1886 by Ernest Bichat and Rene Blondlota.
Given by the Faculty of Physics UJ
fot. Grzegorz Zygier
galwanometer

Galwanometer

Siemens, Berlin, 1907
Apparatus for measurements of weak direct currents. Its spherical iron armored case and two supportive magnets are designed to shield the magnetic needle from the magnetic field of Earth.
Given by the Faculty of Physics UJ
resistor

Adjustable resistor

S. Freud, Cracow, late 19th century
Precision resistance system which allows to set the resistance up to 4 k? with an accuracy of 0.10 ?. It consists of a set of coils of argentan wire enclosed in wooden casing, on top of which small brass plates with the descriptions of the resistance value are arranged parallelly.
fot. Grzegorz Zygier
Tangent galvanometer

Tangent galvanometer

Urania, Warsaw, 1930th.
Instrument used to measure the electrical current from the deviation of the magnetic needle from the direction of Earth's magnetic field. Also used to measure the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field. The instrument was first described by Claude Pouillet'a in 1837.
induktor Rumkorfa

Ruhmkorff coil

Poland, 1896 r.
A type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses. Used for experiments with electrical discharges in gases. Designed by Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff in 1851.
Given by the Faculty of Physics UJ
fot. Grzegorz Zygier
mierniki

Ammeter

Weston Electrical Instrument Co., Newark, USA, 1910
Ammeter that uses a magnetic interaction of two electromagnets. Designed to measure the intensity of the flow of alternating currents to 75 mA for frequencies in the range 25-133 Hz.
Given by the Faculty of Physics UJ
fot. Grzegorz Zygier

Galwanometer

Hartmann i Braun, Frankfurt, c.1930
Magnetoelectric moving coil galvanometer designed to measure the intensity of the weak currents. The prototype of it was designed in 1880 by Arsene d'Arsonval in collaboration with Marcel Deprez.
Given by the Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry
fot. Grzegorz Zygier

Rheostat

Siemens & Halske, Germany, early 20th century
Rheostat in conductance range 0-10 k. Used for precise measurement of voltage and intensity of current in the voltage range from 0.00001 to 10 V. The current measurement was performed using the indirect method by measuring the voltage at the clamps of known electrical resistance.
fot. Grzegorz Zygier


galwanometr

Ammeter

ERA, Poland, 1971
Magnetoelectric ammeter designed to measure alternating currents in a frequency range from 30 Hz to 100 Hz. Works on two current measurement ranges: up to 2.5 A and 5 A.
Given by the Faculty of Physics UJ
fot. Grzegorz Zygier

Galwanometer

AEG, Berlin, c. 1950.
Magnetoelectric moving coil galvanometer designed to measure the intensity of the weak currents. The prototype of it was designed in 1880 by Edward Weston.
Given by the Faculty of Physics UJ
fot. Grzegorz Zygier